Control of gaze by brain stem neurons

proceedings of the symposium held in the Abbaye de Royaumont, Paris, France on July 12-15, 1977

Publisher: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Publisher: sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier North-Holland in Amsterdam, New York, New York

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  • Gaze -- Regulation -- Congresses.,
  • Eye -- Movements -- Regulation -- Congresses.,
  • Brain stem -- Congresses.

Edition Notes

Includes index.

This chapter reviews the behavioral properties of rapid eye movements, ranging from quick phases of nystagmus to cognitively controlled saccades, and their neural substrate. Properties of various types of saccades are described, including express saccades, memory-guided saccades, antisaccades, and saccades during visual search and reading. Current concepts of regions important for the. Chapter 8D - Control of Eye Movements The trochlear nerve, CNIV arises from the trochlear nucleus, crosses within the brain stem, and exits from the dorsal side of the brain stem at the ponto-mesencephalic junction. As with the oculomotor nerve, the trochlear nerve passes through the superior orbital fissure after traveling within the wall. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. ISSN ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Issue: Basic and Clinical Ocular Motor and Vestibular Research Do brainstem omnipause neurons terminate saccades? Janet C. Rucker,1,2 Sarah H. Ying,3 Willa Moore,4 Lance M. Optican,7 Jean Buttner-Ennever,¨ 8 Edward L. Keller,9 Barbara E. Shapiro,4 and R. John Leigh4,5 6 1Department of . particular neurons in the FEF are modulated in a manner sufÞcient to control gaze. SpeciÞcally, when a partially prepared saccade is canceled because of a stop signal, neurons with movement and Þxation activity exhibit a marked deviation of the.

Studies of amphibian gaze control stems back to the s and s, when Birukow and Sperry investigated the optokinetic reflex in anurans and newts. In these initial researches, they discovered such fundamental properties as the unidirectionality of nystagmus under monocular vision. Birukow found the rostral in the frog Rana temporaria and presented indirect proof of the presence of an. It controls the head and neck region of the body through the cranial nerves. There are control centers in the brain stem that regulate the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The cerebellum is connected to the brain stem, primarily at the pons, where it receives a copy of the descending input from the cerebrum to the spinal cord. The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem at the junction of the pons and the medulla, medial to the facial runs upwards and forwards from this position to reach the eye. The nerve enters the subarachnoid space when it emerges from the brainstem. It runs upward between the pons and the clivus, and then pierces the dura mater to run between the dura and the skull through Dorello's : abducens nucleus. Conjugate gaze palsies can be classified into palsies affecting horizontal gaze and vertical gaze. Horizontal gaze palsies. Horizontal gaze palsies affect gaze of both eyes either toward or away from the midline of the body. Horizontal gaze palsies are generally caused by a lesion in the brain stem and connecting nerves, normally in the lty: Neurology.

Characteristics of responses of medial brain stem neurons to horizontal head angular acceleration and electrical stimulation of the labyrinth in the cat Brain Research, Vol. , No. 3 Eye movement-associated discharge in brain stem neurons during desynchronized sleepCited by: GAZE CONTROL & AUTISM By Svea Gold Hobson defines the term oculomotor as the eye movements commanded by brain stem neurons that send their axons to the eye muscles. nisz attempts to explain the connections of the various areas in the brain that control "gaze" by expressing the impact of each system in mathematical terms.

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The Motor Circuits for Saccades Lie in the Brain Stem Saccades Are Controlled by the Cerebral Cortex Through the Superior Colliculus Smooth Pursuit Involves the Cerebral Cortex, Cerebellum.

Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page image below to browse page by by:   This is a PDF-only article.

The first page of the PDF of this article appears by:   Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy Control of gaze by brain stem neurons book file) of the complete article (K), or Cited by: Brainstem Control of Spinal Cord Function summarizes the research findings on major bulbospinal control systems.

It explores how sensory, reflex-evoking inputs to the central nervous system (CNS) modulate descending control signals and how descending control signals regulate the excitability or gains of the segmental reflex arcs.

Keller EL () Control of saccadic eye movements by midline brain stem neurons. In: Baker R, Berthoz A (eds) Control of gaze by brain stem neurons. Elsevier North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp – Google ScholarCited by: Gaze-related activity of brainstem omnipause neurons during combined eye-head gaze shifts in the alert cat M.

Par~ and D. Guitton Montreal Neurological Institute and Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, University, Montreal H3A 2B4, Canada Received J / Accepted August 1, Summary. We are often asked what neuroscience books we recommend, so we put together a small library of textbooks, neuroanatomy books, and books about various neuroscience topics for you to peruse.

If you have brain-related books you’d like us to read, review, and/or add to the collection, feel free to send us an email at [email protected] VERTICAL EYE MOVEMENT CONTROL In contrast to horizontal gaze, which is generated by unilateral aggregates of cerebral and pontine neurons, vertical eye movements, with few exceptions, are under bilateral control of the cerebral cortex and upper brainstem.

The groups of nerve cells and fibers that govern upward and downward gaze, as well as. Brain stem omnipause neurons and the control of combined eye-head gaze saccades in the alert cat. Neurophysiol. –, When the head is unrestrained, rapid displacements of the visual axis—gaze shifts (eye-re-space)—are made by coordinated movements of the eyes (eye-re-head) and head (head-re-space).Cited by:   Commands for horizontal movements are produced by premotor neurons in the pons and medulla, whereas premotor neurons in the rostral midbrain control vertical moveme17,18,19,20,21,Cited by: The cranial nerve exam allows directed tests of forebrain and brain stem structures.

The twelve cranial nerves serve the head and neck. The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) has autonomic functions in the thoracic and superior abdominal cavities.

The special senses are served through the cranial nerves, as well as the general senses of the head and. Neuronal Activity in Central Thalamus of Primates and the Voluntary Control of the Gaze M.,Visuomotor properties of cells in the cat thalamic internal medullary lamina, in: “Control of gaze by brain stem neurons”, R.

Baker and A. Berthoz Neuronal Activity in Central Thalamus of Primates and the Voluntary Control of the Gaze Author: Madeleine Schlag-Rey, John Schlag.

Visual-Vestibular Interaction Hypothesis for the Control of Orienting Gaze Shifts by Brain Stem Omnipause Neurons March Journal of Neurophysiology 97(2) In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves Author: David Zee.

Control of gaze by brain stem neurons: proceedings of the symposium held in the Abbaye de Royaumont, Paris, France on JulyAuthor: Robert G Baker ; A Berthoz. In addition, upper motor neurons originate in the brain stem’s vestibular, red, tectal, and reticular nuclei, which also descend and synapse in the spinal cord.

The brainstem also has integrative functions, including cardiovascular system control, respiratory control, pain sensitivity control, alertness, awareness, and consciousness. In general, three main firing patterns of neurons can be found in the brainstem: burst-tonic units, pause neurons and burst neurons (Luschei and FuchsKeller ).Typical firing patterns of a motoneuron, a pause neuron, a short lead burster and a long lead burster are shown in Fig.

1 as function of horizontal (h) and vertical (v) eye position during a sequence of saccades and : K. Hepp, V. Henn. The nerves can be categorized by functions, and subtests of the cranial nerve exam can clarify these functional groupings.

Three of the nerves are strictly responsible for special senses whereas four others contain fibers for special and general senses.

Three nerves are connected to the extraocular muscles resulting in the control of : OpenStaxCollege. Visual-Vestibular Interaction Hypothesis for the Control of Orienting Gaze Shifts by Brain Stem Omnipause Neurons Mario Prsa and Henrietta L.

Galiana Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Submitted 14 August ; accepted in final form 9 November Prsa M, Galiana HL. The abducens nuclei appear as paired nuclei, located within the pons at the pontomedullary junction of the brainstem, comprised primarily of motor neurons and interneurons.

[1] [2] Neurons from the abducens nuclei provide innervation to the lateral rectus muscles and allow for conjugate horizontal gaze by sending signals to the contralateral oculomotor nuclei that innervate the medial rectus : Anisha N.

Somani, Ore-ofe Adesina. Objectives: To develop a hypothetical scheme to account for clinical disorders of vertical gaze based on recent insights gained from experimental studies.

Methods: The authors critically reviewed reports of anatomy, physiology, and effects of pharmacologic inactivation of midbrain nuclei.

Results: Vertical saccades are generated by burst neurons lying in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the Cited by: Recent experiments have proven that the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) does not simply sum with vestibular eye movement commands during combined eye-head gaze saccades.

Instead, if VOR gain is measured during combined eye-head gaze shifts, the gain is found to be a function of amplitude, decreasing from near unity during small-amplitude saccades to near zero at large amplitudes.

As depicted schematically in Fig. 2, the gaze saccade is generated by activity in the excitatory (EBNs) and inhibitory (IBNs) burst neurons, classified as medium-lead burst neurons (MLBNs) in the brain stem that cause, respectively, excitation of the agonist motor neurons and inhibition of the antagonist motor neurons (for review, see Cited by: Six systems coordinate and stabilize eye movements.

The systems are termed supranuclear because they are higher in the chain of command than the ocular motor uclear pathways connect the ocular motor nuclei to coordinate conjugate movement of yoke muscles and provide a common pathway for supranuclear systems.

Disorders of supranuclear or internuclear pathways can cause conjugate. Progress in Neurobiology 66 () – Brainstem control of head movements during orienting; organization of the premotor circuits Tadashi Isaa,∗, Shigeto Sasakib a Department of Integrative Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Myodaiji, OkazakiJapan b Department of Neurophysiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Musashidai, Fuchu.

Horizontal gaze is controlled by two interconnected gaze centers. One control center is in the frontal lobe, the frontal eye field (Brodmann area 8).

This area acts as a center for contralateral horizontal gaze. In the pons is a second gaze center, known as the pontine gaze center or the PPRF, the paramedial pontine reticular formation.

These areas are connected to the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei by the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) that runs through the majority of the brain stem. The MLF allows for conjugate gaze, or the movement of the eyes in the same direction, during horizontal movements that require the lateral and medial rectus muscles.

Control of. Diffuse groups of neurons in the pretectal region (upper midbrain) coordinate muscles acting in vertical eye movement. Effects of damage to frontal eye field or occipital cortex have on vision Damage to the frontal eye field means that gaze cannot voluntarily be directed to the other side.

therefore, at rest, the direction of gaze is fixed towards the side of the lesion. Control of Eye Movements by the Forebrain. Multiple parallel pathways descend from the cerebral cortex to control eye movement circuits in the brainstem: Descending cortical pathways go either directly to brainstem centers for horizontal, vertical, or vergence eye movements, or via relays in the midbrain superior colliculi; Frontal eye fields.

The amygdala, a brain region important for learning fearful memories, is thought to have a role in generalized anxiety, but the subregions and connections involved in this response are by: The brainstem is a very small component of the brain, making up only around percent of its total weight.: It has the critical role of regulating cardiac and respiratory function, helping to control heart rate and breathing rate.

It also provides the main motor and sensory nerve supply to the face and neck via the cranial pairs of cranial nerves come from the : DChanging Views of the Role of Superior Colliculus in the Control of Gaze Neeraj J. Gandhi1 and David L. Sparks2 1Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA 2Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX USA Running title: Changing views of SC role in control of gaze.